The Hebrew Calendar

The Jewish people used two basic calendars: SACRED — for sacred festivals
CIVIL — official calendar of kings, childbirth, and contracts
Names of Months Roman Months Month of Sacred Year Month of Civil Year Sacred Festivals/Biblical References Corresponding Agricultural Seasons
Abib or Nisan Mar/Apr 1st 7th Ex. 12:2, 13:4
1st—New Moon; Sacred Year begins
14th—Passover Feast
15th—Holy Convocation; Week of Unleavened Bread begins
16th—Offering of Omer or First Sheaf (Lev. 23:10-12)
21st—Holy Convocation
Latter or spring rains (Deut. 11:14)

Barley Harvest

Iyyar or Zif Apr/May 2nd 8th 1 Kings 6:1 Barley harvest (Ruth 1:22)
Sivan May/June 3rd 9th Esther 8:9
Feast of Pentecost
Tammuz June/July 4th 10th Jeremiah 52:5-7 Wheat Harvest
Ab July/Aug 5th 11th Not Mentioned
Elul Aug/Sep 6th 12th Nehemiah 6:15
Tishri Sep/Oct 7th 1st 1 Kings 8:2
1st—Beginning of Civil Year
1st—Feast of Trumpets
10th—Day of Atonement
15th—Feast of Tabernacles begins
21st—Feast of Branches or Palms
Former or early rains (Joel 2:23)
Plowing and sowing begin
Oct/Nov 8th 2nd 1 Kings 6:38 Wheat and barley sown
Kislev Nov/Dec 9th 3rd Jer 36:9, 22; Zech 7:1








Esther 2:16

1 Chron. 17:14; Zech. 1:7

Adar Feb/Mar 12th 6th Esther 3:7 Almond trees blossom
*Ve-adar Intercalary 13th Not Mentioned

*Hebrew months were alternately 30 and 29 days long. Their year, shorter than ours, had 354 days. Therefore, about every 3 years (7 times in 19 years) an extra 29-day month, Ve-Adar, was added between Adar and Nisan.

The Jewish day, from sunset, was divided into 8 equal parts:
Night: First Watch
Second Watch
Third Watch
Fourth Watch
Sunset to 9 P.M.
9 P.M. to Midnight
Midnight to 3 A.M.
3 A.M. to Sunrise
Day: First Watch
Second Watch
Third Watch
Fourth Watch
Sunrise to 9 A.M.
9 A.M. to Noon
Noon to 3 P.M.
3 P.M. to Sunset