|The Jewish people used two basic calendars:|| SACRED — for sacred festivals
CIVIL — official calendar of kings, childbirth, and contracts
|Names of Months||Roman Months||Month of Sacred Year||Month of Civil Year||Sacred Festivals/Biblical References||Corresponding Agricultural Seasons|
|Abib or Nisan||Mar/Apr||1st||7th||Ex. 12:2, 13:4
1st—New Moon; Sacred Year begins
15th—Holy Convocation; Week of Unleavened Bread begins
16th—Offering of Omer or First Sheaf (Lev. 23:10-12)
|Latter or spring rains (Deut. 11:14)
|Iyyar or Zif||Apr/May||2nd||8th||1 Kings 6:1||Barley harvest (Ruth 1:22)|
Feast of Pentecost
|Tammuz||June/July||4th||10th||Jeremiah 52:5-7||Wheat Harvest|
|Tishri||Sep/Oct||7th||1st||1 Kings 8:2
1st—Beginning of Civil Year
1st—Feast of Trumpets
10th—Day of Atonement
15th—Feast of Tabernacles begins
21st—Feast of Branches or Palms
|Former or early rains (Joel 2:23)
Plowing and sowing begin
|Oct/Nov||8th||2nd||1 Kings 6:38||Wheat and barley sown|
|Kislev||Nov/Dec||9th||3rd||Jer 36:9, 22; Zech 7:1|
1 Chron. 17:14; Zech. 1:7
|Adar||Feb/Mar||12th||6th||Esther 3:7||Almond trees blossom|
*Hebrew months were alternately 30 and 29 days long. Their year, shorter than ours, had 354 days. Therefore, about every 3 years (7 times in 19 years) an extra 29-day month, Ve-Adar, was added between Adar and Nisan.
|The Jewish day, from sunset, was divided into 8 equal parts:|
|Sunset to 9 P.M.
9 P.M. to Midnight
Midnight to 3 A.M.
3 A.M. to Sunrise
|Sunrise to 9 A.M.
9 A.M. to Noon
Noon to 3 P.M.
3 P.M. to Sunset